Category: Nutrition

COFFEE SAFETY AND ITS MANY BENEFITS

REVIEWED BY: Angela Leach   

 

Java, Mud, Joe, Brew. People love coffee so much that in 5 seconds I was able to find 30 nicknames for it. Fortunately coffee is one of those rare treats that contain next to no calories and offers health and performance benefits. It is also one of the leading sources of antioxidants in the Western diet. What are the proven benefits (and risks) of coffee? And are there specific safe dosage limits? We take a look.

SAFE INTAKE LIMITS

The following guidelines have been issued by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA):

Adults

In healthy adults between the age of 18 and 65, a daily dose of 400mg of caffeine does not raise safety concerns. Note: this guideline refers to caffeine as a whole and not just caffeine from coffee, it is important to consider all sources of caffeine in your diet when calculating your coffee allowance. Below is a table showing of the caffeine content of various sources:

Mug of brewed coffee 100 – 125 mg Mug of instant coffee 70 mg
Bar of dark chocolate 65 mg Can of Cola – 350 ml 50 mg
Mug of tea 45 – 75 mg 30g dark chocolate (a third of a bar) 20 mg
Mug of cocoa 15 mg Mug of green or white tea 15 mg
30g milk chocolate (a third of a bar) 6 mg Mug of decaffeinated coffee 2 mg

Beware: Too much caffeine (over 500-600mg) can cause restlessness, tremors, irritability, insomnia and an upset stomach.

Children and adolescents

On the whole, significant amounts of caffeine aren’t recommended for children and adolescents; this is due to the fact that caffeine interferes with sleep, which is necessary for proper growth and development. Safety has been established at a limit of 3mg per kg body weight for people between the ages of 3 and 18 years. This would equate to 60mg for a 20kg child.

Pregnant and lactating women

Because the physiological effects of caffeine are passed from the mother to the foetus/infant, its safety in pregnant and lactating women has long been debated. Caffeine has been linked to miscarriage, growth restriction and childhood leukemia, but largely in quantities exceeding 200mg per day. An intake of below 200mg is approved as safe by EFSA. However, to be cautious it is advisable to keep consumption as low as possible.

Specific health conditions

Those with pre-existing heart conditions or type 2 diabetes are advised to keep to an intake of below 200mg or follow their doctors’ instructions regarding intake.

There are some people that are ultra-sensitive to caffeine. In such a case it is difficult to establish a safe limit, but it is recommended to start intake at 50mg per day and increase or decrease from there.

BENEFITS OF COFFEE

Research on the benefits of Java is continuously emerging, some are mentioned below. The majority has shown health benefits from at least three 230ml cups of coffee per day, it may be even more beneficial to split this up into smaller amounts of about 80ml every hour. For those needing to limit their caffeine, decaf typically (with exception) offers the same benefits.

Liver protection

Coffee prevents liver cirrhosis and other liver diseases. The liver is an extremely important organ, responsible for many important functions in the body. Coffee plays a very important role in liver defence, which is particularly important if you drink alcohol. People that drink at least 4 cups per day have up to 80% less chance of developing liver cirrhosis.

A happier you

I’m sure you don’t need any article to tell you this, but coffee makes you happier! Coffee drinkers are 10 to 20% less likely to be depressed, they are also about half as likely to commit suicide. I would say a double expresso is a good reason to wake up in the morning!

Decreased cardiovascular risk

You may have heard that caffeine increases blood pressure and think that I am talking nonsense? However, this effect usually goes away if you drink coffee regularly (with exceptions). It also does not increase risk of heart disease and may prevent cardiac deaths.

Even better, coffee drinkers that drink between 1 and 3 cups per day have a significantly lower risk of having a stroke.

Effects are put down to antioxidants present in coffee which combat inflammation and a boost in nitric acid which dilates blood vessels and lowers blood pressure.

Brain benefits

A moderate intake of coffee improves brain function and reduces risk of developing Alzheimer’s and dementia.

Coffee helps to increase the amount of certain important neurotransmitters which improves, among other things, memory, mood and general cognitive function.

As previously mentioned, coffee is also rich in antioxidants, this, along with its effect on neurotransmitters is thought to be the reason that coffee drinkers that consume between 1 and 5 cups per day have a noticeably decreased risk of developing Alzheimer’s, dementia and even a form of brain cancer.

Coffee or more specifically the caffeine in coffee also assists with prevention of Parkinson’s disease. It can reduce the risk of Parkinson’s by between 30 and 60%

Cancer prevention

Coffee does not only prevent brain cancer. Due to its antioxidant content it has proven to be helpful in the prevention of skin, liver and colorectal cancers too.

Decreased risk of type 2 diabetes

Diabetes is a huge health concern which affects about 347 million people worldwide. Interestingly studies have shown that coffee consumption decreases risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Risk is shown to decrease by about 7% with each cup of coffee drunk per day, I.e. The more coffee you drink the lower your risk of developing diabetes. Remember this is preventative in nature and is not the case for those with existing type 2 diabetes.

Improved sporting performance

By stimulating the nervous system caffeine helps to make free fatty acids available from fat cells. These free fatty acids are then available to the body as a source of energy to fuel your exercise.

Caffeine also causes an increase in the “fight or flight” hormone, adrenaline. Adrenaline increases heart-rate, breathing-rate and energy production, preparing the body for an intense workout.

Because of its physiological effects on the body, Caffeine has been shown to improve exercise performance by 11-12%.  It therefore makes sense to have a cup of strong coffee 30-45 minutes before a workout.

Conclusion

While there are guidelines around safe intake limits, good quality coffee provides us with many health benefits. Take note that although roasted coffee contains antioxidants (Chlorogenic acid), its raw unroasted format ‘Green Coffee beans’ provide a stronger antioxidant punch (as roasting will decrease the antioxidant content). So keep a look out for new developments in products containing Green coffee bean extract.

WHERE DOES FUTURELIFE® FIT IN?

To combine the goodness of FUTURELIFE® and coffee try this amazing mocha protein smoothie

Directions:

1/2 cup coffee, already prepared
1/2 cup fat free vanilla yogurt
1 handful of ice
50g (5 heaped tablespoons) of Chocolate flavour FUTURELIFE® High Protein Smart Food™

Preparation:
Add all the ingredients to your blender and blend together on full power until smooth. Serve and enjoy.

Serves 1 – meal
Serves 2 – snack

 

REFERENCES

  1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20182054
  2. http://www.eatingwell.com/nutrition_health/nutrition_news_information/health_reasons_to_drink_coffee_and_cons_to_consider?page=2
  3. http://authoritynutrition.com/top-13-evidence-based-health-benefits-of-coffee/
  4. http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/pressroom/presspacs/2012/acs-presspac-march-14-2012/why-coffee-drinking-reduces-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes.html
  5. http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=120795&CultureCode=en
  6. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/17/coffee-health-benefits_n_4102133.html
  7. http://jech.bmj.com/content/65/3/230
  8. http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/a-wake-up-call-on-coffee
  9. http://www.fastcompany.com/3034463/coffee-week/exactly-how-much-and-how-often-you-should-be-drinking-coffee
  10. http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-safe-limits
  11. https://www.google.co.za/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAYQjB0&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmostlyeating.blogspot.com%2F2010%2F09%2Fcaffeine-content-of-chocolate-cocoa-and.html&ei=3eMkVdSpMcHqUOu-gagO&bvm=bv.90237346,d.ZGU&psig=AFQjCNH7foZo98xnAEU7kQv2ZE259vKDeg&ust=1428567337246970
  12. http://www.caffeineinformer.com/caffeine-during-pregnancy
  13. http://www.webmd.com/diet/does-coffee-have-nutritional-value-you-bet

 

PROTEIN PULSING

BY: Danielle Roberts   

Maximum anabolism is ideal for muscle growth, strength and recovery, and the key is to keep the body tilted towards anabolism is to increase muscle protein synthesis.

Protein synthesis is a process where nitrogen from amino acids is arranged into structured proteins to create muscle growth. The more efficient this process, the more you build muscle. Protein synthesis requires two main criteria:

  1. Training- using the muscle
  2. Nutrition- a sudden increase in amino acids signals muscles to repair and grow.

 

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

Protein Pulse feeding is the use of fast proteins to spike amino acids in the bloodstream in order to increase muscle protein synthesis. The main way to do this is by ingesting anabolic dense meals often throughout the day. Basically anabolic density means more protein is taken up in less time. A good example of this is whey protein. Whey is broken down and absorbed quicker than casein in the same time, therefore it has a higher anabolic density.

 

The trick with protein pulsing is that you cannot eat a protein with a meal, as fat or carbohydrates, or even slow digesting proteins will delay digestion, and prevent a spike in amino acids. Ideally a protein pulse plan starts with having whey protein in the morning. Upon waking, we are usually in a catabolic state. To put the body into a more anabolic state, drinking a fast digesting protein, such as whey, is a good idea. Thereafter, taking in fast digesting proteins (whey, cottage cheese, egg whites) every 2-3 hours throughout the morning, helps ‘inject’ the muscles with amino acids. Once this has been done for about half a day, more balanced meals including protein, carbohydrates and fat can be consumed, making sure the protein content of the meal remains between 25g – 60g.

 

EXAMPLE:

6am:  25g protein from whey (in water)

8am:  50g protein from whey (in water)

10am: 3 egg whites scrambled

12pm: lunch meal e.g. 200g grilled chicken with baked sweet potato and salad

2pm: FUTURELIFE® High Protein SmartBar

5pm: 25-50g protein from whey (in water) post gym

7pm: dinner meal e.g. 200g grilled fish with brown rice & steamed vegetables

 

This protein pulse idea proposes that the body will be flooded with amino acids which will increase muscle protein synthesis. Another upside to this is more metabolically active muscle tissue, which means the body burns more calories, and thus more fat.

 

While research is still fairly new, protein pulsing then gives one the opportunity to try build lean muscle mass more quickly with fairly little effort in terms of preparing laborious meals. It is certainly worth a try for those looking to increase their lean muscle mass, but should ideally be carried out with consultation of a registered dietitian to ensure that nutritional requirements are met.

GUIDELINES FOR EATING BEFORE EARLY MORNING WORKOUTS WHERE TIMING IS AN ISSUE

BY: Angela Leach  

Maybe you’ve heard that it’s really important to eat before morning exercise? Perhaps you’ve tried it, but you had limited time and really regretted it during your workout because you just felt heavy, slightly nauseas and had tummy issues? Don’t fret, you are not alone, this is a common scenario and a major reason that many people do their workouts in a fasted state. Today I’m going to explain why it is so important to eat before you exercise in the morning and give you tips on WHAT to choose when time is not on your side.

WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH EXERCISING IF I HAVEN’T EATEN YET?

Food, particularly carbohydrates, is fuel for your body. We all know how far a car goes when it runs out of fuel… Not very far at all. While we fortunately have carbohydrate stores (in the form of glycogen) in our muscles, these stores are limited, even more so if you have not eaten for 10-12 hours since your dinner the night before. You can therefore imagine the effects that going to train fasted would have1,2 3:

  • Premature fatigue
  • Low blood sugar levels
  • Decreased endurance capacity
  • Decreased speed
  • Gastrointestinal upsets
  • Negative effects on body composition

Simply put to get the most out of your training and to be able to go for longer it is a good idea to consume something before you train.

THE IN’S AND OUT’S OF TIMING

Your pre-exercise meal should be eaten in a period of 1-4 hours before training. Now, obviously if you are training at 5.30am, eating at 2am is really not an option for most recreational athletes. You may be willing to make some sacrifices before a competition or race, but certainly not a few times a week. Eating 1 hour before may be more realistic, but brings its own limitations; most people really can’t stomach much so soon before.

GUIDELINES ON WHAT TO CHOOSE WHEN TIME IS LIMITED

If you have a good few hours before start of your exercise options of carbohydrate rich breakfasts that will fuel you well are broad. However, when you have an hour or even less before exercise your options become quite limited. Nevertheless, you should ideally get something in, here are some tips that I’ve picked up over time:

Go low residue

Contrary to the types of carbohydrates one should generally try to include in their diet, in this meal you want to try steer away from high fibre foods. Low fibre foods are digested more quickly and will help to prevent gastrointestinal upsets and leave you feeling lighter during exercise4.

Portion with caution

You are most likely not going to be able to stomach a large serving of anything so soon before exercise. My feeling here is something is better than nothing, even if you can only tolerate a few mouthfuls of a carbohydrate rich food, it is more fuel than you would have had if you had foregone the meal.

Fat phobia

Like fibre, while (good) fats play an important role in our diets, they should be kept to a minimum before exercise. The reason for this is that fat slows down absorption of food and will leave you feeling heavy and uncomfortable. As a side note, if you include dairy remember to go low-fat or fat-free.

Drink your pre-exercise meal

This is a dual-purpose guideline. Firstly, this will help you to get in some fluids and assist with hydration levels. Secondly, many people find a liquid meal easier to stomach in the morning, it is also often more convenient to drink a meal on-the-go rather than sitting down to eat.

Personalise to your own tolerance

What works for one person may not work for the next, try different food options until you learn what works best for you. A small period of trial for a lifetime of brilliant morning workouts.

EXAMPLES FOOD OPTIONS THAT MAY WORK FOR YOU

Now that we know the rules, here are some examples of foods that fit the criteria. Remember to keep portions small.

I hope that this information will help you to go from strength to strength in your training and that you achieve all your goals in whatever sport makes you smile.

REFERENCES

  1. https://www.dietitians.ca/Your-Health/Nutrition-A-Z/Sports-Nutrition-(Adult)/Fuelling-up-before-exercise.aspx
  2. https://www.sportsdietitians.com.au/factsheets/fuelling-recovery/eating-drinking-sport/
  3. http://www.livestrong.com/article/548187-what-are-the-effects-of-not-eating-and-then-exercising/
  4. http://awordonnutrition.com/sepost/fibre-reduction-low-residue-diet/?type=article

How is it Possible for me to Train this Hard and not Lose Weight?

By: Sonal Ratan

Do the gym staff know you by name, because you’re there every day, like clockwork? Do you struggle to keep up at your running club, but still always show up and never give up? Do you work up a sweat at home every night, following the instructions from your fitness app? And are you still not losing weight, despite following such a high intensity fitness regime? We might have the missing link that can help on your journey towards weight-loss.

 

IT’S A TEAM EFFORT

You need petrol to fuel a car and get to your destination, right? Of course you do, the car and petrol are equally important to get you from point A to point B. In the same way, if you want to lose weight then it is important that you follow a calorie-restricted, balanced eating plan as well as exercise.

 

WEIGHT LOSS MYTH BUSTERS

Okay, so you’re fully aware that what you eat is just as important as how you exercise. But let’s take a closer look at a few common myths that could be misleading you.

 

“I can have this cupcake and run for an extra five minutes to work it off later”.

Think of your body like a scale. If you consume the same amount of calories (in the form of food or beverages) that you use (for body functions and physical activity), then your weight will stay the same. Let’s use the cupcake as an example:

 

1 cupcake= Jogging at an average pace (5 minutes) = ±240 calories IN   ± 80 calories OUT

This much extra jogging would only burn off one third of that cupcake! It doesn’t sound so appealing now, does it? I’m not saying that you should never have a treat again. You are human and sometimes you want to indulge in something sweet. So, why not go for our FUTURELIFE® Crunch Bar instead? Not only is it delicious, it also:

  • Is high in protein;
  • Is a source of fibre;
  • Contains soya lecithin. Studies suggest that soya lecithin assists with improved brain function, aids in healthy weight loss, lowers cholesterol and prevents fat build-up in the arteries to promote heart health.

 

12g FUTURELIFE® Crunch Bar=   Walking up the stairs (4 minutes) = 43 calories IN ±43 calories OUT

Do you work in a building with stairs? Then working off a FUTURELIFE® Crunch Bar is as simple as skipping the elevator and walking about four flights of stairs.

 

Note: Calories burned will differ between individuals as this is dependent on numerous factors. The above are examples for a better understanding of how calorie intake and use works.

 

“I need a low fat or low carb diet to lose the most amount of weight”.

 

Absolutely not! A study investigated the effects of a low carb and low fat diet on weight loss. For two weeks, one group of obese participants were placed on a low carb diet that reduced their total calorie intake by 30%. A second group of obese participants were placed on a low fat diet which also reduced their calorie intake by 30%. After the two weeks and a few weeks of rest, the groups switched diets. The results revealed that both groups had lost about the same amount of weight1.

 

This study is a great example of why cutting down on one specific food group does not achieve optimal weight-loss results. Yes, the groups did lose some weight but this was due to the fact that the participants were obese and had cut back on calories by 30%. More focus should be placed on reducing your total calorie intake and distributing your daily allowed calories throughout a balanced diet consisting of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This will lead to you losing a significant amount of weight and keeping it off, with exercise. It is also important to watch your portion sizes and choose the right types of foods. Here are a few tips to ensure that you are eating the correct portion sizes at meal times:

Palm for protein

 

Your portion of protein should be the size and thickness of your palm. Remember to go for lean options and cut off all extra fat from meat before cooking. E.g. skinless grilled chicken breast, grilled fish or boiled eggs.

Fist for carbohydrates

 

Include a fist full of a high fibre carbohydrate. E.g. FUTURELIFE® Smart Bread™ (1-2 slices), brown rice or whole wheat pasta.

Handfuls for vegetables

 

You should include at least two handfuls of a variety of vegetables of different colours. The more colours you include, the better. Each colour indicates different nutrients. E.g. carrots, tomatoes, broccoli or beetroot.

 

Thumb for fat

 

Include healthy fats at meal times but only as much as the tip of your thumb. As a general rule, use no more than 1 teaspoon of fat for a meal when cooking. E.g. canola oil, olive oil or avocado in a salad.

 

The above are general guidelines. For a more precise calculation of your meal portion requirements visit your nearest dietitian.

 

“I need to sip on an energy drink while training”.

It is common knowledge that staying hydrated while training is important. However, what you are meant to drink is still unclear to many people. The American College of Sports Medicine states that when exercising for less than one hour, there is limited evidence that people who drink beverages with carbohydrates and electrolytes perform better than those who drink plain water2. It is also important to keep in mind that if you are exercising in an air-conditioned gym for 90 minutes, you are still more likely to need fluids in the form of water than electrolytes (you may need some carbohydrates for hard sessions, lasting longer than an hour). Let’s break it down:

 

500ml energy drink= Full body gym workout (60 minutes, non-stop) = 150 calories IN   240 calories OUT

Once you’ve completed a 60-minute, full body workout, you have burned about 240 calories. If you’ve consumed a 500ml energy drink during this time, then you’ve consumed about 150 calories. 150 calories in and 240 calories out, means 90 calories burned by the end of your gym session. So, do you really need that energy drink? Research shows that there is no substantial evidence to prove that energy drinks – except for caffeinated drinks, which are beneficial because of the caffeine – lead to the enhancement of physical performance3. My advice is that if you are not an athlete, sweating vigorously and training for lengthy periods of time and your aim is to lose weight, energy drinks are not a good idea. Plain water is enough to keep you hydrated, as you will not lose a significant amount of electrolytes while you train. You also won’t require extra glucose if you have had a small snack or a meal some time before your workout. If you want that caffeine fix, then simply add a teaspoon of coffee to your FUTURELIFE® shake before your workout.

 

No one said that the journey towards losing weight was going to be easy but it certainly isn’t impossible. Now that you have a few tips, stay motivated, train hard and eat right – starting now! You will definitely be thanking yourself later.

 

References:

  1. http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2015/08/13/432087757/you-don-t-need-to-go-low-carb-to-burn-body-fat-study-says
  2. http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/what-to-drink-when-you-exercise#2
  3. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00525.x/abstract

 

Images:

  1. https://www.todaysparent.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/ChocolateCupcake-iStockphoto.jpg
  2. http://www.globerunner.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/jogging.jpeg
  3. http://www.prevention.com/sites/prevention.com/files/styles/article_main_image_2200px/public/shutterstock_296776931-walking-up-stairs-danyl.jpg?itok=0jN82hcR
  4. http://static.wixstatic.com/media/76f487_c4cc9dfe18c244538b17810d5d8b4596.png
  5. http://cdn1.theinertia.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/EnergyDrink_shutterstock_i-500×400.jpg
  6. http://garagegympower.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/gym-1024×685.jpg

 

When and How to Tone and Build Muscles

By: Wilna Eksteen

 

BUILDING MUSCLES

This is something every male will attempt, and more than once in his lifetime. Unfortunately, muscle building and toning are (like most things in life) influenced by your genes, age, gender, eating habits and exercise. Not all teenage boys will wake up on their 15th birthday with a full beard and start shaving, some will start earlier. Some will take years to grow a beard that runs from ear to ear and some will have to shave twice a day to keep everything under control. The same principle applies to muscle building and toning.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF MUSCLES

Not everyone builds muscles in the same way. If you understand that your body determines how you build and tone muscles, you can start doing the right types of exercises, taking part in the right sports and identifying which physical activities will be easiest for you.

Type 1

Type 1 fibres are also known as slow twitch fibres. They are red in colour due to the presence of large volumes of myoglobin and oxygen as well as high numbers of mitochondria. They are very resistant to fatigue and are capable of producing repeated low-level contractions.

Athletes such as marathon runners have a high number of this type of fibre, partly through genetics and partly through training1.

Type 2A

Type 2A fibres are also known as fast oxidative fibres and are a cross of type I and II fibres. They are more prone to fatigue than type I fibres. Resistance training can turn type 2B fibres into type 2A fibres by increasing the ability to utilise the oxidative cycle1.

Type 2B   

Also known as fast glycolytic fibres, these are white in colour due to a low level of myoglobin and few mitochondria. This results in short, fast bursts of power and rapid fatigue. This type of fibre can be turned into type 2A fibres, through resistance training. This is a positive change because of the increased fatigue resistance of type 2A fibres. These fibres are found in large quantities in the arm muscles1.

It is a lot harder for someone with majority type 1 muscle fibre to build bulking muscles, than it is for someone with majority type 2B fibres. It is quite easy to identify the type of muscle fibres you have. If you are lean, naturally a bit skinny and have never been the fastest person around, you most likely have type 1 muscle fibres.

This will help you when you exercise. If you have type 1 muscle fibres, it takes you a lot longer to condition your muscles into being ‘bulky’ than if you have type 2B muscle fibres.

GROWING UP  

Weight

During your teen years, your body wants to grow. You’re churning out hormones that are specially designed to help you get bigger. Right now you may be able to take in a huge amount of food and use it to build a strong body.  But growing will not stop here – especially for guys.

  • There is no shortcut to growing.
  • You will not look like the guy next to you, everybody is different.
  • Start slowly. Your muscles are growing but forcing them will just cause injuries.
  • Genetics does play a role.
  • Do not overdo protein.
  • Sleep! Your body produces growth hormones while you sleep.
  • Get advice on your specific body type.

Height

You are not supposed to look in proportion when you are going through puberty. Your body grows at different rates, in different places and this is completely normal. The same principle applies to your muscles, they will grow bigger as soon as your body can afford to use energy for it.

 

THE WHEN AND THE HOW

  1. Listen to your body.
  2. Speak to your parents about when they went through growth spurts. This can give you an idea of when you might start growing taller or building muscles more easily.
  3. If you work against your body, you will cause more damage than good and it will take you a lot longer to see any results.
  4. Do not compare yourself with other girls or boys.
  5. Eat a healthy, balanced diet that consists of a variety of foods. The body you have now still needs to go through a lot, look after it.
  6. Muscle building and toning is very dangerous if you start too early.

Building and toning muscles is different for every person. Make sure you understand your body and what is ‘natural’ for you. There are a lot of ways to look better and have a healthy body, but it depends on your body and what it is capable of at different stages in your life.

 

References

  1. http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/fibre_types.php

Images

  1. http://www.teachpe.com/anatomy/fibre_types.php
  2. http://www.taseerlabs.com/Height/13-Growth%20&%20Development.html

 

What You Need From Your Nutrition During Exercise

By: Danielle Roberts

Endurance sporting events are becoming increasingly popular. Doing well, and recovering well in longer endurance events can be directly linked to good nutrition.

EVERYDAY NUTRITION FOR ENDURANCE FUELING

Energy

The energy requirements of endurance athletes are higher than other athletes. Calorie requirements differ depending on an athlete’s gender, age, weight goals, and training programme. Smaller athletes in light training will require a minimum of 2,000 calories per day; larger athletes and those in heavy training may need well over 5,000 calories per day. It is important that athletes try achieve these calories from a variety of food sources. Having a good nutrition programme that meets energy, weight and training goals during the early phases of training, helps prepare you for heavy training schedules, and competition. A sports dietitian is the best person to assist in a personalised meal plan.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates provide the ideal energy source for most endurance exercises because they are quickly absorbed and used by the body. Following a diet that is too low in carbohydrates can cause fatigue and injury. Also, eating sufficient carbohydrates spares protein from being used as a source of fuel during exercise. Generally 5-7g / kg is needed per day for high intensity endurance athletes to perform at their best day after day, and on race day.

Protein

Protein helps build and repair muscles, and supports immune function. Protein also is used as a less important fuel for endurance exercise and sport. Even during race events and long training sessions,

taking in a little protein, along with carbohydrates may help prevent muscle breakdown. Protein is also vital for recovery post training and allows for muscle protein synthesis. Generally, 1.2-1.7g / kg protein is needed per day.

Looking at your overall diet

Following a nutrient-dense, well-balanced diet, you can easily meet your needs for endurance training and racing. Eat a diet high in quality carbohydrates, moderate in healthy fat and adequate in lean protein.

Your nutrient intake and diet plan needs to adjust to meet changing energy and macronutrient demands as you progress through the different stages of training and competition. Once you have an eating plan in place for a particular cycle, keep consistent eating habits to maintain or improve performance goals.

WHAT TO LOOK FOR DURING THE ENDURANCE EVENT

Carbohydrates

During a race or event, carbohydrates (or an energy source), becomes very important to avoid “hitting the wall”. This is when your body runs out of available energy sources to fuel performance, and the athlete feels exhausted. Taking in intermediate or fast digesting carbohydrates can prevent this from happening during a race. As a rule we require 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour, this can increase to 90 g in events with high levels of effort lasting more than 4 hours.

Fat as a fuel?

There are some athletes who are able to adapt to using fat as a source of energy during longer (slower) events, but it takes a while for the body to adapt to a low-carb training diet, and this needs to be monitored closely and adhered to strictly. Something to be cautious of is ingesting slow absorbing fuels like proteins, nuts, or foods with fibre and other solid foods during workouts or races, which can cause gastric discomfort. An empty stomach can absorb your race drink quickly and properly. Keep your stomach empty by only consuming fast absorbing drinks instead of slow solid foods.

Conclusion

The most important tip to follow for any type of race is of course, never to try a new supplement on race day. An athlete should always be familiar with nutrition available during the race in case that

specific supplement disagrees with the digestive system, makes you feel nauseous or causes drops in  sugar levels.

Counting Calories: Yes or No?

By: Elizda Hanekom

In order to lose weight we need to eat fewer calories than what our body uses. In theory this may seem really easy and simple to do however, in the modern world it becomes a little more complex. With tendencies towards healthier lifestyles, individuals are equipping themselves to make better choices and calorie counting is often used for weight management. Let’s take a closer look at counting calories in the correct way.

BACK IN THE DAY…

People haven’t been counting calories forever, as difficult as a world without calorie awareness may be to imagine. The concept became popular around the turn of the 20th century1. Scientist Wilbur Atwater discovered that if you put food into a bomb calorimeter, a machine that measures the energy contained in a food by measuring the heat generated during its combustion2, you would then know how much “energy” was in the food. The idea became popular and many people started counting calories – that is, counting exactly how many calories are consumed when eating foods and then exactly how many are “burned” when doing different activities. These activities include walking, talking, eating and even activities that keep our bodies functioning properly like breathing3.

THE CALORIE COUNTDOWN

Understanding calorie counting is an important concept. When we eat the same number of calories as we burn our body uses, our weight will be maintained. If we eat more than what our bodies use we will gain weight. If we then eat less than what our bodies use we will subsequently lose weight.

Besides calorie content, there are numerous reasons to choose certain foods. For example: choosing a low GI, high fibre option means that the food will keep you fuller for longer which may prevent you from eating “extra” calories to fill you up4. The other benefit of eating healthier options (fruits, veggies and low fat foods) is that we can eat a lot more food, for less calories. Our bodies get greater nutritional benefits too. Carbohydrates and protein have 4 calories per gram whereas fats have more than double this at 9 grams per calorie5. Alcohol is 7 calories per gram. So, although counting calories for weight management definitely works, our diet quality is extremely important. It doesn’t help we choose high fat breakfast options such as a full fat cheese and bacon omelette, as one could easily consume over half your day’s calorie allowance by the end of breakfast without getting nearly the nutritional value that those calories ought to contain.

WHAT’S ALL THE FUSS?

People are counting calories for different reasons but it all has to do with weight, whether it is to lose, to maintain or to gain. People want something that’s easy – therefore downloading an app that helps count the calories of the foods that you want to eat seems very appealing. Note that this often leads to eating smaller portions of the unhealthier foods. For me this is a big no-no. My advice is that individuals should focus on diet quality. The problem is that it’s easier to count calories (or fat grams) than to understand the complex effects that food has on our bodies and waistlines. In short, calories do count but there’s more to it. Different foods have different effects on our bodies. Think of hormones, some hormones say “store the fat”, others say “release sugar” and others say “build muscle.” Numerous studies have shown that the amount of calories consumed are important, but, different proportions of carbohydrates, protein and fat result in varying amounts of weight loss1,3,5.

KEEPING COUNT IS DIFFICULT

Counting calories accurately is extremely difficult. Yes, there are apps to assist us but these are also not 100% accurate as there is still an element of human error when estimating portion sizes. In addition the pizza listed on the app may contain a completely different amount of cheese for instance than the pizza you are consuming. Although 67% of Americans have reported taking calories into account when making food choices, about 9 out of 10 had no idea about the actual amount they needed to consume per day4.

Another factor is that we often miscount what we eat. Men claim to eat an average of 2618 calories per day whilst women claim to eat only 1877 calories4. Where are all the extra calories going? These mainly go straight to your waistline.

Nutrition experts were put to the test in an experiment. Two hundred dietitians were given five different meals served in restaurants and asked to estimate the calorie value of each meal. It was found that their estimates of the calorie values for each meal were inadequate6. With even the professionals struggling to accurately predict the number of calories in meals it just shows that alternative methods could prove to have better results.

WHAT ELSE CAN WE DO?

Yes, calorie formulas are still correct, but that doesn’t take away from the complexity of it all. Think of exercise. We focus on the number of kilometres we have run, our heart rate or the number of minutes we have exercised for instead of the amount of calories burned. Here are a few alternatives to calorie counting:

o Eat smaller portions: This sounds so obvious although it isn’t always the easiest. Restaurants and fast food outlets serve larger portions – do you recognise any of these words – supersize, grande, large, even extra-large. Studies have shown that when we are served more, we eat more4. We also then gauge a serving to be a lot bigger than what it should be. An easy way to eat less is to dish up in a smaller plate and then not reach for seconds. When eating out, swop your carbohydrate (fries) for salad or stir-fried veggies.

o Choose foods that use more energy to digest: Yes, you read this correctly. Certain foods use more energy to digest and metabolize, this is called the thermic effect of food. Although the difference is small, small amounts all add up. Protein and carbohydrates have a higher thermic effect than fats. Whole-wheat bread for instance uses more energy to digest versus a refined white bread4.

o Making the right nutrition choices: We always hear about balance, variety and moderation. Making better lifestyle choices are of utmost importance. Choose lean meats, low fat options, whole grains, low GI foods, plenty of fruits and veggies, lots of water, exercise and you’re off to an excellent start.

CONCLUSION

Let’s place greater focus on why we eat certain foods, which foods are healthier and when we do eat something “naughty” don’t fall off the bandwagon, just get back on. It is all about lifestyle choices. In short: “You don’t need to count calories, but you should make all your calories count!

References

1. Bowden J. Smart Fat. [Online]. [cited 2017 June 12. Available from: http://smartfat.com/authors__trashed/jonny-bowden-phd-cns/.

2. Unknown. [Online]. [cited 2017 June 12. Available from: https://www.google.co.za/search?q=bomb+calorimeter&rlz=1C1NHXL_enZA699ZA699&oq=bomb+calorimeter&aqs=chrome.0.69i59j0l5.3268j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8.

3. West H. Authority Nutrition. [Online].; 2016 [cited 2017 June 12. Available from: https://authoritynutrition.com/counting-calories-101/.

4. Kovacs JS. Wed MD. [Online].; 2009 [cited 2017 June 12. Available from: http://www.webmd.com/diet/features/dos-donts-counting-calories#3.

5. Rousell M. Shape. [Online].; 2017 [cited 2017 June 12. Available from: http://www.shape.com/weight-loss/tips-plans/ask-diet-doctor-should-i-count-calories-or-carbs.

6. Young L. The Portion Teller Plan House R, editor. USA: Potter/TenSpeed/Harmony; 2005.

Need to Lift Your Spirits? THEN GET MOVING!

By: Kathleen Mc Quaide (Sports Scientist, Strategic, Marketing and Relationship Manager at the Sports Science Institute of SA)

 “Feeling down” or “got the blues” more often than you’d like? You are NOT alone – anxiety, panic disorder and depression are becoming increasingly common in our society and it has been predicted that by the year 2020, the most common reason for South Africans visiting their doctors will be due to depression. It is believed that only about 20% of individuals who meet the criteria for depression are actually treated by someone trained in the field (psychologist, psychiatrist). A major reason for this, is that people fear being labelled or stigmatised as having a mental condition, and they therefore underplay the severity of their symptoms. However, if the doctor or therapist was to approach their patient with positive preventative type strategies such as exercise, it would probably be much more acceptable to them. In fact, it has now been conclusively shown that in non-depressed men and women, inactivity is a major predictor of future depression- so all medical professionals should be prescribing exercise.

Maybe you are not depressed but you are STRESSED!  As technology changes faster than the speed of light – with smartphones, iPads and laptops being the order of the day- people expect everything done NOW.  Some people feel the need to be accessible 24/7 and squash more and more into their already hectic day- therefore burning the candle at both ends. Something has to give, and very often it’s our health that does due to incessant stress. Aiming for a stress-free existence is tantamount to wanting to live in a Utopia and indeed some stress is healthy, but we do need to look after ourselves and ensure there is some time for relaxation, spending time with family and friends and being active.

Whether you fear you are battling with chronic depression or quite simple stressed out – exercise can offer a helping hand.

On a practical level, how much exercise should you perform to derive the optimal psychological benefits and what should you be doing?

 

People usually feel good for about 2-6 hours after an exercise bout, which helps to decrease anxiety, tension and depression. However, to have the best effects, try to incorporate the following 7 tips into your physical activity plan:

  • Make it something you enjoy and preferably an activity that doesn’t require mastery, otherwise you could be put off because it is either too much effort, or you feel like a failure if you can’t master it successfully.
  • The activity should be very accessible, otherwise when you feel tired and down-hearted – you might feel it is not worth the effort to get there.
  • If you are feeling down – opt for group-based sessions since most of us benefit from the support and encouragement of others. Not only will it lift flagging spirits; it might also see the beginning of new, healthy friendships.
  • The activity should be regular – at least three sessions a week and more if possible.
  • Keep in mind the immediate uplifting effects of exercise – therefore, if you can incorporate even a short walk into each day, you will benefit psychologically.
  • That said – exercise for long enough. Where possible – sessions should not be shorter than 30 minutes – and try to extend them to 45 minutes to an hour, where possible, for maximal psychological benefits. Try to accumulate 150 minutes of physical activity per week.
  • Think long-term – you will be amazed at how the wonderful benefits encourage you to make a life-long commitment to regular exercise.
  • Use outdoor exercise options whenever possible. It is remarkable how exercising outdoors helps you to gain perspective on troubling issues (particularly if you select a beautiful area in which to exercise i.e. a forest walk, a clamber up the mountains, a walk along a stunning beach).

Exercise is also a great way to increase your energy levels and fight off feelings of fatigue and stress. Exercise increases blood flow to the brain thus delivering more oxygen and enzymes important for energy production.  It also improves sleep and immune function, elevates overall mood and well-being.

 

Interestingly – a research study published in the Journal Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism in July 2013 – showed that the number of times you exercise in a week isn’t as important as getting the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. However, they were only measuring the participant’s risk for diabetes, heart disease and stroke. As an avid runner – my regular running and training sessions provide enormous stress relief for me – freedom of expression and a daily dose of sanity. I would personally hate to have to reserve those benefits to a long run once a week!

Clearly the positive psychological benefits of regular exercise aren’t limited to those who are feeling below par. Everyone can benefit from regular exercise as it improves our sense of well-being, our degree of vigour and vitality and decreases our sense of confusion, lethargy, anxiety and anger.

And all you have to do is to put on your gear and get going for the benefits to unfold.

 

Full Cream Dairy: Do We Need To Be So Wary?

By: Sonal Ratan

 

You’re at the supermarket doing your grocery shopping. Next on the list: milk and yoghurt. You head towards the fridges and take in the wide range of options. Full-cream, low-fat, skim and fat-free… Even 1%. You pick up the full cream options at first but then you think about all the extra fat and calories you’re going to consume. You then opt for the low fat and fat-free versions because you’re sure it’s the healthy thing to do. Is this still the right choice? The latest research is now challenging the recommendations of avoiding full fat dairy as it may in fact be beneficial to your health.

 

WHAT IS THE BIG FAT DEAL?

Milk fat contains more than 400 different building blocks of fat know as fatty acids. The fatty acid breakdown of whole milk is about 62% saturated, 30% monounsaturated, 4% polyunsaturated, and 4% other types such as naturally occurring trans fatty acids.

When faced with the dilemma of full fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease, it is important to identify the different biological effects of each type of fatty acid. Saturated fats and trans fats are the two main fats that come under the spotlight when “bad” fats are mentioned. Let’s take a look at what the research says.

A recent analysis of the research on saturated fat revealed that there is no significant evidence to prove that dietary saturated fat increases risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease1. One study in particular has yielded results to show that a higher intake of specifically dairy saturated fats was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease2. These studies echo the statement from the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee that regardless of the fat level, milk and milk products consumption is associated with lower blood pressure and a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

So what about the effect on your cholesterol levels? Research reveals that milk may increase total and LDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) however it may also raise HDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol), thus resulting in a neutral effect3.

 

There are two types of trans fats, industrial trans fatty acids and naturally occurring trans fatty acids. Industrial trans fatty acids are produced when liquid vegetable oil is converted into a solid. This type of trans fat is known to increase the risk of heart disease. The same cannot be said for naturally occurring trans fatty acids which are found in cow’s milk as well as goat and sheep milk. Humans convert vaccenic acid (the main trans fatty acid in dairy) into Rumenic acid.  Rumenic acid is the biologically active form of conjugated linoleic acid. It is worth noting that during the process of removing fat from dairy products, Rumenic acid is also removed. Studies show that conjugated linoleic acid in milk may potentially have numerous health benefits. More research is needed in terms of the effects in humans in order to make bold statements about the benefits of conjugated linoleic acid.  Published reviews have however identified potential benefits for cardiovascular disease, bone health and cancer prevention4.

 

When examined holistically, studies comparing full fat dairy with low-fat dairy have revealed that full fat dairy is associated with a lower risk of obesity5. The proposed explanation for this is that people who drink low-fat dairy compensate for the missing fat with other foods, thus leading to a higher intake of calories and weight gain.

There is no significant evidence to prove that dietary saturated fat increases risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. Milk consumption regardless of fat level may lower risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and lower blood pressure. It also has a neutral effect on your cholesterol levels.

Cow, goat and sheep milk contains naturally occurring trans fatty acids. Humans convert the main trans fatty acid in dairy into a potentially beneficial trans fat called Rumenic acid. Rumenic acid is however removed during the fat removal process from dairy products.

Consumption of Full fat dairy has also been linked to a lower risk of obesity.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT IS THE TRICK TO THE TYPE OF DAIRY YOU PICK?

Now that you’ve heard the case for full fat dairy, the lesson to be learnt is that recommendations that look at single nutrients need to be examined carefully. Although there is now clear evidence that full fat dairy is not harmful to your health as originally thought, this does not mean that it is the most suitable option for everyone.

 

Every individual has different nutritional requirements based on their weight, height, activity level and stress factors such as hypermetabolism. It is therefore important to keep these nutritional requirements in mind when you look at your total calorie intake as well as the source of these calories.

 

For children, healthy fats play an essential role in growth and development. They require sufficient amounts of good fats for their nervous system and brain to develop normally. In this case, full fat dairy in the correct amount may be the most suitable option. Individuals with increased energy requirements may also benefit from the use of full fat dairy.

 

Conversely, low-fat or fat- free dairy may still be the most beneficial option for weight management. Although the studies mentioned earlier stated that full fat dairy is linked to a lower risk of obesity, this does not necessarily mean that it is the best option for weight management.  The participants of these studies who consumed low-fat dairy did not control their total calorie intake and compensated for the missing calories in the dairy with other foods. If your goal is to lose weight, your nutritional requirements will be lower. Consuming the correct amount of low-fat or fat-free dairy in combination with a healthy, balanced diet will help you to limit your calorie intake and assist in weight management.

 

CONCLUSION

The extremely common fear of full-fat dairy is proving to be unprecedented. Next time you go grocery shopping and you’re in the predicament of which dairy option to pick, think about your individual nutritional requirements and choose the type of dairy best suited to your needs.

Where does FUTURELIFE® fit in?

Looking for a great tasting, convenient on-the-go drink? Try out FUTURELIFE® Smart Drink.

 

 

 

 

 

This low GI milk based drink contains 50 essential amino acids and is a source of electrolytes. It contains full-cream milk, but the overall composition is low-fat. FUTURELIFE® Smart Drink is a convenient meal or snack for people with on-the-go lifestyles. The combination of carbohydrates and protein also make it ideal as a post training recovery drink after endurance or strength training. The only dilemma you’ll have when picking a drink now is which delicious flavour to choose.

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES:

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824152/
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396447/
  3. http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/hypertensionaha/48/2/335.full.pdf
  4. https://www.dairynutrition.ca/nutrients-in-milk-products/fat/the-effects-of-cla-on-health
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22810464
  6. http://advances.nutrition.org/content/3/3/266.full.pdf+html
  7. http://time.com/4279538/low-fat-milk-vs-whole-milk/
  8. http://www.todaysdietitian.com/news/exclusive0912.shtml
  9. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3528417/STOP-drinking-skim-milk-fat-dairy-reduces-risk-diabetes-helps-LOSE-weight.html
  10. http://time.com/3734033/whole-milk-dairy-fat/
  11. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00394-012-0418-1
  12. http://advances.nutrition.org/content/3/3/266.full
  13. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1541-4337.12011/full
  14. http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2014/03/17/290846811/dont-fear-the-fat-experts-question-saturated-fat-guidelines
  15. https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/fat.html

What Makes FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ Ideal for Exercise Recovery?

By: Angie Leach

Many people realise that they need to consume something after exercise, but there is often confusion as to what. A pure whey shake? A sports drink? Absolutely anything you can find in your fridge… Because you are starving! Exercise recovery nutrition is multifaceted and aims at returning your body to its pre-exercise state. This involves refuelling the body, repairing your muscles and rehydrating. Good exercise recovery will:

  • Facilitate muscle gain as a result of the training
  • Assist in increasing strength
  • Allow you to train at a higher intensity
  • Have a protective effect on the immune system
  • Prevent dehydration

This article will explore the features of FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart Food™ that make it excellent for recovery.

PROTEIN

Muscles develop tiny tears during exercise which can cause some of the pain you experience afterwards. Protein is essential for the repair of these muscles, which results in growth in both muscle strength and size1.

The amount of protein required for muscle repair is between 0.2 – 0.5g/kg or about 10 – 20g protein. The exact amount that you require for recovery will be influenced by various aspects such as exercise intensity and duration, but should not exceed 25g. This can be fulfilled in one sitting or partially as a snack followed by a meal within a couple of hours.

FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ provides 22.5g of protein per 75g serving, this would be further increased if the product is mixed with milk.

Another positive feature is the SmartProtein3D blend of proteins contained in FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ which consists of whey, soy and casein proteins. Studies have shown that such a blend is ideal for muscle recovery because it prolongs muscle protein synthesis. This occurs because each protein has a different digestion rate, leading to a prolonged delivery of amino acids. SmartProtein3D also has a more balanced amino acid profile with soy being higher in glutamine and arginine and whey providing more Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs). Please see below diagram for clarification.

CARBOHYDRATES

Following exercise you also need carbs, more carbs than protein actually. Carbohydrates are needed for the replenishment of your glycogen (energy) stores in your muscles as well as your liver.

You require 0.8 – 1.2g of carbohydrates per kg bodyweight for optimal recovery this equates to roughly 50g – 80g Carbohydrates for the average person. Again, this can be taken in all at once as a meal or partially as a snack followed by a meal.

FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ provides 27g of high quality carbohydrates per 75g serving. Mixing with milk or yoghurt and adding fruit will further increase this amount. The options are endless, you could concoct a smoothie or even try these delicious HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ crumpets with honey for something different. See http://futurelife.co.za/futurelife-high-protein-smart-food-crumpets/.

CONVENIENCE

Ideally you should start your exercise recovery as soon as possible after completing your exercise session, but definitely within 30-45 minutes. However, this can become difficult if you’re on the run, headed to your next of many commitments. The beauty of FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ is that it is super convenient. If you have a shaker and some cool water or milk, you can mix it up, drink it down and be reassured that your muscles are on the road to recovery.

FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN SMART FOOD™ CONTAINS MODUCARE®

MODUCARE® is a patented blend of natural plant sterols and sterolins in a clinically proven ratio of 100:1. It works to modulate and restore balance of the immune system. You may wonder how this has anything to do with exercise recovery… Well, when we are exercising intensely our bodies undergo a period of immunosuppression following said exercise. Research has shown that a blend of plant sterols and sterolins like that found in MODUCARE® blunts this effect2 helping to keep you out of the doctor’s office and on the road (or in the gym).

INFORMED-CHOICE

FUTURELIFE® HIGH PROTEIN Smart food™ is endorsed by Informed-Choice, a quality assurance program in the sports industry. The program certifies that a product that bears the Informed-Choice logo has been rigorously tested for banned substances in sport by the world class sports anti-doping lab, HFL Sport Science.

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES:

  1. http://www.weightwatchers.com/util/art/index_art.aspx?tabnum=1&art_id=60361&sc=3405
  2. moducare.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/moducare-summary-of-research.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=za

 

Images:

FUTURELIFE® High Protein Smart Food™